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未来“功能稻米”将走出实验室 满足人们对稻米的个性化需求

发布时间:2018-11-08 14:25
中国水稻育种技术近十年来突飞猛进,育种家实现从传统“经验育种”向高效设计的“精确育种”转变。在《中国实验室》第二季拍摄期间,中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所李家洋院士向澎湃新闻记者创想了分子设计育种技术在未来的广泛应用——如何因地制宜,通过基因设计培育出适合不同人群需求的产品,为大米在“主食”之外增加“营养品”的身份。
 
China rice breeding technology in recent ten years by leaps and bounds, breeders from the traditional "breeding" to "precise and efficient design of breeding" transformation. During the filming of "Chinese laboratory" in season second, genetic Chinese academy and developmental biology institute academician Li Jiayang to surging news reporter the creators of molecular design breeding technology is widely applied in the future -- how to cultivate conditions, through genetic design for different groups of needs, for the rice in the master "Nutriment" is added to the diet.
 
 
 
李家洋认为,水稻的个性化育种是未来趋势,其迅猛发展得益于中国地域辽阔、地理条件丰富多样,为研究和生产创造了优越条件。同时,科技发展大大加速了新品种的创制过程。过去三十年,中国水稻基础研究经历了从向国际先进水平学习、与其并驾齐驱到现今领先国际的三个发展阶段,这是中国科学发展的缩影,未来其它作物育种甚至整个生物育种都会再现这一过程,逐步走向世界前沿。
 
Li Jiayang believes that individual rice breeding is the future trend, the rapid development of China due to the vast territory, rich geographical conditions, creating favorable conditions for research and production. At the same time, the development of science and technology has greatly accelerated the creation process of new varieties. Over the past thirty years, Chinese basic research on rice experienced learning, from the international advanced level with the three stages of development to the racing together bridle to bridle the leading international, this is the epitome of China scientific development, the future of other crop breeding and the biological breeding will reproduce the process, gradually moving towards the forefront of the world.
 
 
 
水稻,水稻品质,培育水稻
 
Rice, rice quality and cultivation of rice
 
 
 
从经验育种到精确育种
 
From experience breeding to precision breeding
 
 
 
澎湃新闻:您从事的分子设计育种研究是通过什么方式提升水稻品质?
 
Surging news: what kind of ways do you engage in molecular design breeding research to improve rice quality?
 
 
 
李家洋:水稻和其它农作物一样,其重要农艺性状都是由一些重要的基因来控制的,基因是控制着产量、品质、抗逆性和特殊营养价值等各个方面的主要因素,你需要了解这些控制基因的作用机理,事前进行设计。就像我们做手机,你把重要的零件组合起来得到一个产品,就能满足不同人的需要。我们的农产品也是这样,基因就像一个个零件,你知道这些基因的作用及其机理,把不同的基因组合起来,协调在一起就能得到你想要的品种,这就叫做设计育种。这个设计不仅仅是产量品质,更包括适应土地的状况、气候的变化、当地的生物状况,比如病虫害情况,进行一些优化组合,得到你想要的最理想的状态。
 
Li Jiayang: rice and other crops, the important agronomic traits are composed of some important genes to control the gene to control each of the major factors of yield and quality, resistance and special nutritional value and so on, you need to understand the role of these machine control genes, advance design. Do you like our mobile phone, the important parts are combined to obtain a product that can satisfy the needs of different people. Our agricultural products is such a gene like a part, you know the effect and mechanism of these genes, the gene combination of different varieties, coordinate to get what you want together can, this is called design breeding. This design is not only the yield and quality, including more adapt to the status of land, climate change, local biological conditions, such as plant diseases and insect pests, some optimization combination, get the ideal state you want.
 
 
 
澎湃新闻:中国水稻研究多年来一直引领世界,相较于之前应用的育种技术,比如超级稻,分子设计育种有何不同?
 
Surging news: after years of research Chinese to rice breeding technology has led the world, compared to the previous application, such as super rice, different molecular design breeding?
 
 
 
李家洋:大家都为了一个共同的目标在努力做,但所采取的途径有所不同,基础有所不同。育种在过去是一门艺术,不知道哪个基因控制哪个性状,只能靠经验,通过最后的结果说明哪些基因组合是好的,这个过程非常漫长。从分子水平上了解水稻高产、优质、抗性,这个过程是最近十多年才突飞猛进地发展。新一代的分子育种家知道每个材料是什么基因在控制什么性状,有什么差别,它在什么材料品种里面有这些基因,然后我们有意识地明确地去选择它们进行杂交,在很早期的时候就进行鉴定选择,用高通量分析一次可以选择成百上千的目标基因,选出来之后再放到地里去种,再去观察鉴定评价,验证它们是不是高产、优质,是不是抗病,是不是你喜欢的香型等等。
 
Li Jiayang: everyone for a common goal in the effort to do, but the approach taken is different, different foundation. Breeding is an art in the past, do not know which genes which control characters, can only rely on experience, by the end of the results which show the gene combination is good, the process is very long. Understand the resistance, high yield and high quality rice from the molecular level, this is the last more than 10 years of rapid development. A new generation of molecular breeding materials is what know each gene in the control of what character, what is the difference, it is what these genes in a variety of materials, and then we consciously choose to clear their hybridization, when very early on the identification of choice, one can choose to use the high flux analysis Hundreds of target genes, then selected to go on, then to observe the identification and evaluation, verify whether or not they are high yield and good quality, is not a disease, is not you love the flavor and so on.
 
 
 
过去是被动地或者凭运气地进行,是一种艺术,而现在是事先知道蓝图,然后按照我们的意愿组合设计出来。这是科学进步的结果。
 
The past is passive or by luck, is a kind of art, which is now know in advance in accordance with the design blueprint, then we will combination. This is the result of scientific progress.
 
 
 
基因操控却非转基因
 
Gene manipulation is not genetically modified.
 
 
 
澎湃新闻:说到农作物的基因操控不免让人联想到颇有争议的转基因话题,分子设计育种与转基因的区别在哪里?
 
Surging news: speaking of genetic manipulation of crops inevitably reminiscent of transgenic controversial topic, different molecular design breeding and transgenic in where?
 
 
 
李家洋:转基因关键是个转字。所有生物都是有基因的,这是第一。第二,转基因跟正常育种都是在操作基因,但为什么不一样?转基因是指把外源的基因放进来,比如说水稻,我可能是把小麦的、玉米的,也可能把细菌的,甚至动物的一些基因通过特殊的无性的方法放到水稻里去,让它起作用,这个过程叫转基因。而我们做水稻本身的基因研究,它不存在转,它本身就在水稻里面,我们只是对基因做一些修改或改变,这个修改或者改变它不涉及把外面的基因给搬进来。
 
Li Jiayang: the key to transgenic is to change words. All creatures have genes, which is the first. Second, with normal transgenic breeding are in operation gene, but why not? GM refers to the exogenous genes in rice, for example, could I have wheat, corn, also may be the bacteria, some even by special animal genes in rice clones to make it works This process is called transgene. We do research on rice gene itself, it does not exist, it itself in the rice inside, we just do some modification or change of gene, the modification or change it does not involve the outside genes to move in.
 
 
 
未来主食变身营养品
 
Future staple food is transformed into nourishment.
 
 
 
澎湃新闻:根据不同需求培育水稻是分子设计育种的优势之一,听说您正在研究针对糖尿病人的水稻品种,这项技术未来有怎样的应用前景?
 
Surging news: according to the different needs of the cultivation of rice is one of the advantages of molecular design breeding of rice varieties, you are for diabetes that this technology has application prospect in the future?
 
 
 
李家洋:一般育种家都希望能有大面积、高产量的品种,做特殊的小品种很难,但如果我们知道这个控制特殊功能的基因,知道它的作用机理,就可以很方便地培养出一些特殊的品种,就能够实现个性化的订制育种。比如说糖尿病人,国际上有个标准,就是说一个人每天吃20克抗性淀粉对糖尿病人非常有利,血糖比较平缓。那就定向培育一个让大米里面含有10%或者更高的抗性淀粉的大米。你在一天吃的大米量里有20克抗性淀粉,这对病人比较好。
 
Li Jiayang: General breeders are hoping to have a large area and high yield varieties, it is difficult to do a small variety of special, but if we know the special function of the control gene, know the mechanism, you can easily develop some special varieties, it can realize personalized custom breeding. For example, patients with diabetes, there is a international standard, that is one person every day to eat 20 grams of resistant starch is very beneficial to patients with diabetes, blood sugar slowly. Then we should cultivate a rice that contains 10% or more resistant starch in rice. The amount of rice you eat in a day is 20 grams of resistant starch, which is better for patients.
 

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