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继谷歌被罚43亿欧元后 亚马逊遭欧盟反垄断审查

发布时间:2018-10-27 15:02
刚经历市值破万亿的亚马逊,最近遭到了欧盟的反垄断审查。这是继谷歌被欧盟开出43亿欧元罚单后,又一互联网巨头遭受反垄断审查。
 
Amazon, which has just experienced a trillion dollar market share, has recently been censored by the European Union. This is followed by Google's 4 billion 300 million euro ticket fined by the European Union, and another Internet giant has been subjected to antitrust censorship.
 
 
 
据外媒报道,欧盟官员9月19日(美东时间)透露,欧洲监管机构正在初步审视亚马逊的第三方数据收集行为,作为早期反垄断调查的一部分。
 
European regulators are examining Amazon's third-party data collection as part of an early antitrust investigation, EU officials said Sept. 19.
 
 
 
欧盟竞争委员会委员Margrethe Vestager在新闻发布会上表示,欧盟正在调查亚马逊是否通过商城收集竞争对手的销售信息,来让自己在竞争中更具优势。“亚马逊平台有双重用途,它在为第三方卖家提供销售渠道的同时,亚马逊官方也在销售自营产品,让他们在无形中占据了东道主的上风。而这一切都是由数据引起的。”Vestage表示目前调查仍处于“早期阶段”,也没有正式立案,但欧盟监管机构将会全面进行调查分析。
 
The European Union is investigating whether Amazon is using malls to gather sales information from competitors to give it a competitive edge, European Commission member Margrethe Vestager said at a news conference. "Amazon has a dual purpose platform, it provides a channel for third-party sellers, while Amazon is also selling its own products, so that they have an invisible advantage over the host. And all this is caused by data. " Vestage said the investigation is still at an "early stage" and has not been formally filed, but EU regulators will conduct a comprehensive investigation and analysis.
 
 
 
截止9月19日(美东时间)收盘,亚马逊股价当天下跌0.75%,市值降至9396亿美元。而在本月5日,亚马逊市值一度突破万亿,成为继苹果之后第二家市值破万亿美元的科技公司。
 
Amazon shares fell 0.75% to $939.6 billion by the end of September 19. On the 5th of this month, Amazon was the second technology company with a market capitalization of trillions after Apple.
 
 
 
亚马逊发布的2018年Q2财报数据显示,亚马逊第二财季直营电商收入增长14%,为272亿美元,为第三方卖家提供服务的收入同比增长39%至97.02亿美元,整体电商业务营收占总营收的51.4%。可以看出,电商业务依然是亚马逊营收的主要来源,其中为第三方卖家提供服务带来的收入增长远高于直营电商。本次反垄断调查,正是对准了亚马逊为第三方提供服务过程中,商户数据的滥用。
 
Amazon's 2008 Q2 earnings data showed that Amazon's direct e-commerce revenue rose 14% to $27.2 billion in the second quarter, with revenue from services to third-party sellers rising 39% to $9.702 billion year-on-year, with overall e-commerce revenue accounting for 51.4% of total revenue. As can be seen, e-commerce business is still the main source of revenue for Amazon, which provides services for third-party sellers to bring revenue growth is much higher than direct e-commerce. This antitrust investigation is aimed at the abuse of merchant data in Amazon's service to third parties.
 
 
 
亚马逊今年多次遭反垄断审查
 
Amazon has been under antitrust review many times this year.
 
 
 
早在今年3月份,亚马逊日本子公司遭到日本公平贸易委员会(Fair Trade Commission)的反垄断审查。日本是亚马逊继美国、德国之后的第三大市场。
 
As early as March, Amazon's Japanese subsidiary was subject to antitrust scrutiny by the Fair Trade Commission. Japan is Amazon's third largest market after the US and Germany.
 
 
 
华尔街日报消息称,日本政府官员表示,日本公平贸易委员会担心亚马逊平台上的商品卖家,因未满足强势零售商的要求利益受到损害。日本公平贸易委员会的关注点还在于,强大的网络零售商采取怎样的方式来扭曲竞争、削弱在其他地方降价的积极性,以及获得超过其他网上购物中心运营商的优势。
 
According to the Wall Street Journal, Japanese government officials said the FTC was concerned that merchandise sellers on the Amazon platform would suffer from failing to meet the demands of strong retailers. Japan's Fair Trade Commission is also concerned about how powerful online retailers can distort competition, reduce incentives to cut prices elsewhere, and gain an advantage over other online mall operators.
 
 
 
今年8月份,亚马逊在德再次遭遇反垄断审查。彭博社消息称,德国联邦卡特尔办公室表示,该机构希望对亚马逊是否阻挠其他类似服务提供商的平台进行调查。德国相关负责人表示,在亚马逊运营的混合平台上,其他商家“也可以准入这个门户网站”,因此亚马逊可以阻碍其竞争对手的成长。
 
In August this year, Amazon again encountered antitrust censorship in Germany. The German Federal Cartel Office said it wanted to investigate whether Amazon was blocking other similar service providers'platforms, Bloomberg said. Officials in Germany said that Amazon's hybrid platform allows other businesses to "access the portal" so that Amazon can hinder the growth of its competitors.
 
 
 
与在德国遭遇的审查类似,本次审查也因为亚马逊商城为第三方卖家提供服务而起,欧盟担心亚马逊收集商户信息,以为自己谋得优势。
 
Similar to the review in Germany, the review was triggered by Amazon's offer of services to third-party sellers, and the EU feared that Amazon would gain an advantage by collecting merchant information.
 
 
 
欧盟重视互联网平台竞争环境
 
EU attaches importance to the competitive environment of the Internet platform
 
 
 
两个月前,欧盟曾向谷歌开出了43亿欧元的罚单,理由为谷歌通过安卓移动操作系统的优势,维持其在互联网搜索领域的主导地位,并要求手机制造商预先安装谷歌服务和应用程序的做法违反了欧盟有关垄断法的规定。
 
Two months ago, the European Union imposed a 4.3 billion fine on Google for maintaining its dominance in Internet search through Android's mobile operating system and requiring mobile phone manufacturers to pre-install Google services and applications in violation of EU monopoly laws.
 
 
 
伦敦经济学院法学教授Pablo Ibanez Colomo对美国科技媒体Bloomberg称,“趋势很明显”,欧盟开始看到,互联网平台必须公平对待其他竞争对手,这是必不可少。 “即使竞争对手基本上使用你的平台进行曝光,你也需要公平对待竞争对手。”他认为,亚马逊在市场上占据主导地位,这样的调查合乎情理,一项法律调查结果将迫使其注意不要伤害竞争对手。
 
Pablo Ibanez Colomo, a law professor at the London School of Economics, told the US technology media Bloomberg that "the trend is clear" and the EU is beginning to see that Internet platforms must treat other competitors fairly, which is essential. "Even if your competitors basically use your platform for exposure, you need to be fair to your competitors." Amazon dominates the market, he argues, and such a survey makes sense, and a legal investigation would force it not to hurt its competitors.

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