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当纸张不再是生活的必需品 手工造纸将何去何从 古朴技艺淹没于时

发布时间:2018-10-27 15:02
造纸是中国四大发明之一,至今已有1900多年的历史。在造纸业飞速发展、人类文明高度发达的今天,手工造纸作坊早已销声匿迹,但其印记仍然依稀可循。
 
Paper making is one of the four great inventions of China, and it has a history of more than 1900 years. With the rapid development of the paper industry and the highly developed human civilization, the handmade paper mill has long disappeared, but its imprint is still vague.
 
 
 
上世纪八、九十年代前,在高青县青城、木李一带,有不少村民借当地的蚕桑资源开办造纸作坊,沿用最传统的手工工艺生产毛头纸,用来包装水果、蔬菜,出口国外。由于纸张绵软,拉力大且环保,很受客户欢迎。直到20世纪末,手工造纸由于工序繁杂、效率低下、利润薄而被时代淘汰。
 
Before the 1980s and 1990s, in Qingcheng and Muli areas of Gaoqing County, many villagers borrowed local sericulture resources to set up paper mills. They also used the most traditional handicraft to produce wool paper, which was used to pack fruits and vegetables and exported abroad. Because paper is soft, powerful and environmentally friendly, it is very popular with customers. Until the late twentieth Century, manual papermaking was eliminated by the times due to its complicated process, low efficiency and low profit.
 
 
 
让濒临消失的传统技艺活下来是造纸人和遗产保护专家共同面临的难题。目前,学术界特别强调对“非遗原真性的活态传承和传习,对那些依然“活”着的手工纸技艺来说,现代新工艺、新设备究竟能不能用?怎么用?有没有一个“度”的限制?
 
The survival of the dying traditional skills is a difficult problem for paper makers and heritage protection experts. At present, the academia especially emphasizes the living inheritance and learning of "non-relic authenticity", for those still "living" handmade paper technology, modern new technology, new equipment can be used? How to use? Is there a "limit"?
 
 
 
其实,就中国造纸发展史来说从材料、加工技艺、过程处理到设备设施,升级与变革是一直在发生着的。我们看到汉代出土的古纸是那么粗糙保持了蔡伦造纸法的原貌,包括使用弊(坏)布、旧麻头、破渔网、树肤(不知具体种类的树皮)原料,以及我们现在还没搞清楚的工艺与设施等等如果没有历代造纸人的持续革新,后来怎么可能不断诞生那么多精致美五彩缤纷的中国纸呢?
 
In fact, in the history of China's papermaking development, from materials, processing technology, process treatment to equipment and facilities, upgrade and change has been taking place. We see that the ancient paper unearthed in the Han Dynasty is so rough that it preserves the original appearance of Cai Lun's paper-making method, including the use of abusive (bad) cloth, old hemp head, broken fishing nets, raw materials of tree skin (bark of unknown species), as well as the technology and facilities that we have not yet understood, and so on. Without the continuous innovation of the Paper-makers of the past dynasties, how could it be possible to continue to develop later? How many beautiful and colorful Chinese paper were born?
 
 
 
 
 
核心问题在于:第一,变革是缓缓进行的?还是剧烈发生的?第二,变革是否会对核心工艺产生颠覆性的变化?当前,由于工业化与信息化进程尤为猛烈,传统手工造纸采用“新工艺”新设备”的合规性与边界问题比较突出。以核心工序“抄纸”来说,目前正出现由传统的手作抄纸工艺,到吊帘抄纸工艺、喷浆抄造工艺,再到小型滚筒造纸工艺……智能化工艺的探索、演化趋势。之所以有这样的变化,关键在于,传统手作工艺大范围后继无人、效率提升慢和可比经济性差这三大压力几乎同时到来。在我们对十余个省区的调查中,几乎所有造纸厂与造纸户都面临年轻一代不愿继承手抄造纸祖业的困境,包括全世界最大的手工造纸企业—有1300名员工的中国宣纸股份有限公司。
 
The core issues are: first, is the change taking place slowly or drastically? Second, will the change bring about a subversive change to the core process? At present, due to the process of industrialization and information technology is particularly fierce, the traditional handmade paper using "new technology" and new equipment "compliance and boundary issues are more prominent. To the core process of "papermaking", is now emerging from the traditional hand-made papermaking process, to hanging curtain papermaking process, spray pulping papermaking process, and then to the small roller papermaking process... The exploration and evolution trend of intelligent technology. The key to this change is that the three pressures of large-scale succession of traditional hand-made processes, slow efficiency improvement and poor comparable economy, are coming almost simultaneously. In our survey of more than 10 provinces, almost all paper mills and paper mills are facing the plight of the younger generation, including China Xuan Paper Co., Ltd., the world's largest handmade paper company with 1300 employees.
 
 
 
再看另一核心工序“制浆”,由于效率与劳动付出的巨大差异,从手工,到畜力+水车,再到机械打浆机,几乎已是不可挽回的替代进程,除了出于技艺纯粹性保护的目的.很难有其他理由要求造纸工匠和纸坊老板坚持不用打浆机。我在四川调研时遇到一个很经典的案例:凉山州会理县云甸乡的手工竹纸生产已有600余年历史,2010年入选省级“非遗”保护项目。2012年前,4个造纸村有造纸户600多户,然而,2014年1月,他们已全部改用小型造纸机,生产最低端的祭祀用的竹纸。生产量几何级数放大,村民收入跳跃式上升,手工造纸的传承却完全中断,仅仅两年已一户不剩。焦虑却又无奈的会理县文化馆(“非遗”保护项目的责任单位)只能花钱购买套手工造纸设备,放在馆里以备不时之需。
 
Another core process, pulping, is an irreparable alternative to manual, livestock + water carts, and mechanical beaters, because of the huge difference in efficiency and labor expenditure. I met a very classic case when I was investigating in Sichuan: Handmade bamboo paper production in Yundian Township, Huili County, Liangshan Prefecture has a history of more than 600 years, and was selected as a provincial "non-legacy" protection project in 2010. By 2012, there were more than 600 papermaking households in four paper villages. However, in January 2014, they had all switched to small paper machines to produce the lowest-end sacrificial bamboo paper. The geometric series of production enlarged, the income of villagers jumped, but the inheritance of hand-made paper was completely interrupted, only two years has not left a household. Anxious but helpless, the Lianxian Museum of Culture ("non-legacy" protection project responsibility unit) can only spend money to buy a set of hand-made paper equipment, put in the museum for a rainy day.
 
 
 
当然也不乏令人振奋的变革故事:2015年11-12月,史无前例的“三丈三”宣纸在中国宣纸股份有限公司诞生。“三丈三”,即纸张尺寸为1100cm×330cm,需要99个造纸工人配合完成:抄纸时,巨大的纸帘用绳子挂在钢梁上44位技艺娴熟地抄纸工在指挥号子的协调下,操作纸帘成捞纸工序;8位辅助技工拉紧绳子将纸帘竖起,通过龙门吊车,护送纸帘到达上帖区;8位牵纸工骑在木梯上从两边到中间将湿纸一张张揭下送往晒纸区;火墙旁,各有6个纸工从上、中下三个方位,用纸刷将湿纸刷上火墙。整个过程,堪称传统技艺与现代工业手段的完美结合。
 
Of course, there are some exciting stories of change: from November to December 2015, the unprecedented "Sanzhangsan" Xuan Paper was born in China Xuan Paper Co., Ltd. "Sanzhangsan", that is, the paper size is 1100cm *330cm, needs 99 papermaking workers to cooperate to complete: when papermaking, the huge paper curtain hanging on the steel beam with rope 44 skilled papermakers in the command of the coordination of the number, the operation of the paper curtain fishing process; 8 auxiliary technicians pull up the rope paper curtain, through the gantry crane, escort paper curtain to reach Upper plaster area; 8 paper pullers riding on wooden ladders from both sides to the middle of the wet paper piece by piece to send to the paper drying area; beside the fire wall, each of six paper workers from the top, middle and bottom three directions, with a paper brush wet paper on the fire wall. The whole process can be called the perfect combination of traditional skills and modern industrial means.
 
 
 
目前,虽然对手工造纸原生技艺文化生态保护的看法还见仁见智,但演化或替代已是手工造纸行业的趋势实际上,在手工造纸的重镇—日本和台湾,纯粹手工抄造的比例也已经非常低。2016年,我们组织考察团赴日本调研和纸,从当地和纸行业协会了解到,全日本用纯手工方式造纸的从业者只剩约200人,其中最大的纸坊不超过20人。台湾的情况也与之类似,不超过20人。台湾的情况也与之类似全岛仍然保持用手工技艺生产的只有5家手工纸厂,也几乎都是吊帘与喷浆+清一色打浆机纸浆,规模最大的长春纸业,有60多个不用造纸机的纸槽其中只有4个手工抄纸槽,其他均为喷浆和吊帘。
 
At present, although there are still different opinions on the protection of the original craftsmanship and cultural ecology of manual papermaking, but evolution or substitution is the trend of the handmade papermaking industry. In fact, the proportion of pure handmade papermaking in Japan and Taiwan, the key cities of manual papermaking, is already very low. In 2016, we organized a delegation to Japan to conduct research and papermaking. From the local and paper industry associations, we learned that there were only about 200 practitioners in pure handmade papermaking in Japan, of whom the largest paper mill was no more than 20. The situation in Taiwan is similar to that of no more than 20 people. The situation in Taiwan is similar to that in the whole island, only five hand-made paper mills are still manufactured by handicraft. Almost all of them are hanging curtain and spray-pulp + pure-color beater pulp. The largest paper industry in Changchun has more than 60 paper slots without paper machines, of which only four are hand-made paper slots, the others are spray-pulp and hanging curtain.

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