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当纸张不再是生活的必需品 手工造纸将何去何从 古朴技艺淹没于时

发布时间:2018-10-27 15:02
Paper making is one of the four great inventions of China, and it has a history of more than 1900 years. With the rapid development of the paper industry and the highly developed human civilization, the handmade paper mill has long disappeared, but its imprint is still vague.
Before the 1980s and 1990s, in Qingcheng and Muli areas of Gaoqing County, many villagers borrowed local sericulture resources to set up paper mills. They also used the most traditional handicraft to produce wool paper, which was used to pack fruits and vegetables and exported abroad. Because paper is soft, powerful and environmentally friendly, it is very popular with customers. Until the late twentieth Century, manual papermaking was eliminated by the times due to its complicated process, low efficiency and low profit.
The survival of the dying traditional skills is a difficult problem for paper makers and heritage protection experts. At present, the academia especially emphasizes the living inheritance and learning of "non-relic authenticity", for those still "living" handmade paper technology, modern new technology, new equipment can be used? How to use? Is there a "limit"?
In fact, in the history of China's papermaking development, from materials, processing technology, process treatment to equipment and facilities, upgrade and change has been taking place. We see that the ancient paper unearthed in the Han Dynasty is so rough that it preserves the original appearance of Cai Lun's paper-making method, including the use of abusive (bad) cloth, old hemp head, broken fishing nets, raw materials of tree skin (bark of unknown species), as well as the technology and facilities that we have not yet understood, and so on. Without the continuous innovation of the Paper-makers of the past dynasties, how could it be possible to continue to develop later? How many beautiful and colorful Chinese paper were born?
The core issues are: first, is the change taking place slowly or drastically? Second, will the change bring about a subversive change to the core process? At present, due to the process of industrialization and information technology is particularly fierce, the traditional handmade paper using "new technology" and new equipment "compliance and boundary issues are more prominent. To the core process of "papermaking", is now emerging from the traditional hand-made papermaking process, to hanging curtain papermaking process, spray pulping papermaking process, and then to the small roller papermaking process... The exploration and evolution trend of intelligent technology. The key to this change is that the three pressures of large-scale succession of traditional hand-made processes, slow efficiency improvement and poor comparable economy, are coming almost simultaneously. In our survey of more than 10 provinces, almost all paper mills and paper mills are facing the plight of the younger generation, including China Xuan Paper Co., Ltd., the world's largest handmade paper company with 1300 employees.
Another core process, pulping, is an irreparable alternative to manual, livestock + water carts, and mechanical beaters, because of the huge difference in efficiency and labor expenditure. I met a very classic case when I was investigating in Sichuan: Handmade bamboo paper production in Yundian Township, Huili County, Liangshan Prefecture has a history of more than 600 years, and was selected as a provincial "non-legacy" protection project in 2010. By 2012, there were more than 600 papermaking households in four paper villages. However, in January 2014, they had all switched to small paper machines to produce the lowest-end sacrificial bamboo paper. The geometric series of production enlarged, the income of villagers jumped, but the inheritance of hand-made paper was completely interrupted, only two years has not left a household. Anxious but helpless, the Lianxian Museum of Culture ("non-legacy" protection project responsibility unit) can only spend money to buy a set of hand-made paper equipment, put in the museum for a rainy day.
Of course, there are some exciting stories of change: from November to December 2015, the unprecedented "Sanzhangsan" Xuan Paper was born in China Xuan Paper Co., Ltd. "Sanzhangsan", that is, the paper size is 1100cm *330cm, needs 99 papermaking workers to cooperate to complete: when papermaking, the huge paper curtain hanging on the steel beam with rope 44 skilled papermakers in the command of the coordination of the number, the operation of the paper curtain fishing process; 8 auxiliary technicians pull up the rope paper curtain, through the gantry crane, escort paper curtain to reach Upper plaster area; 8 paper pullers riding on wooden ladders from both sides to the middle of the wet paper piece by piece to send to the paper drying area; beside the fire wall, each of six paper workers from the top, middle and bottom three directions, with a paper brush wet paper on the fire wall. The whole process can be called the perfect combination of traditional skills and modern industrial means.
At present, although there are still different opinions on the protection of the original craftsmanship and cultural ecology of manual papermaking, but evolution or substitution is the trend of the handmade papermaking industry. In fact, the proportion of pure handmade papermaking in Japan and Taiwan, the key cities of manual papermaking, is already very low. In 2016, we organized a delegation to Japan to conduct research and papermaking. From the local and paper industry associations, we learned that there were only about 200 practitioners in pure handmade papermaking in Japan, of whom the largest paper mill was no more than 20. The situation in Taiwan is similar to that of no more than 20 people. The situation in Taiwan is similar to that in the whole island, only five hand-made paper mills are still manufactured by handicraft. Almost all of them are hanging curtain and spray-pulp + pure-color beater pulp. The largest paper industry in Changchun has more than 60 paper slots without paper machines, of which only four are hand-made paper slots, the others are spray-pulp and hanging curtain.

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